1) Yolk: The yolk delivers three quarters of the eggs calories and nutrients, also contains the proteins that create emulsions like aioli.
2) Chalazae: A pair of twisted cords that anchor the yolk in the center of the egg.
3) Inner White: The white is 90% water, the remainder is mainly protein. Thicker and firmer than the outer white, the inner white cushions the yolk and appears cloudy when very fresh. This is a good sign when making souffle's. Fresh whites make for more stable foams.
4) Outer White: Visualize the profile of a fried egg and you will recognize the thin outer layer of the white, which cooks more quickly than the center. Older eggs have a higher proportion of this thin white.
5) Eggshell: The permeable shell has up to 17,000 pores, which is how the egg loses moisture over time. This is also how it picks up refrigerator odors. Therefore, storing your eggs in the carton/container they came in is suggested.